Many hydraulic applications are similar to Figure 2.16, where a workpiece is held in place by a hydraulic ram. There are essentially two distinct requirements for this operation. As the cylinder extends or retracts a large volume of fluid is required at a low pressure (sufficient just to overcome friction). As the workpiece is gripped, the requirement changes to a high pressure but minimal fluid volume.
This type of operation is usually performed with two separate pumps driven by a common electric motor as shown in Figure 2.17. Pump P1 is a high pressure low volume pump, while pump P2 is a high volume low pressure pump. Associated with these are two relief valves RV 1 and RV 2 and a one-way check (or non-return) valve which allows flow from left to right, but blocks flow in the reverse direction.
A normal (high pressure) relief valve is used at position RV 1 but relief valve RV 2 is operated not by the pressure at point X, but remotely by the pressure at point Y. This could be achieved with the balanced piston valve of Figure 2.6. In low pressure mode both relief valves are closed and both pumps P1 and P2 deliver fluid to the load, the majority coming from pump P2 because of its higher capacity.
When the workpiece is gripped, the pressure at Y rises, and relief valve RV 2 opens causing all the fluid from pump P2 to return straight to the tank and the pressure at X to fall to a low value. Check valve CV 1 stops fluid from pump P1 assing back to the tank via relief valve RV 2, consequently pressure at Y rises to the level set by relief valve RV 1.
This arrangement saves energy as the large volume of fluid from pump P2 is returned to the tank at a very low pressure, and only a small volume of fluid from pump P1 is returned at a high pressure. Pump assemblies similar to that shown in Figure 2.17 are called combination pumps and are manufactured as complete units with motor, pumps, relief and check valves prefitted.
Another type of axial piston pump, sometimes referred to as an in-line pump, is commonly referred to as a Stratopower pump. This pump is available in either the fixed-displacement type or the variable-displacement type.
Two major functions are performed by the internal parts of the fixed-displacement Stratopower pump. These functions are mechanical drive and fluid displacement.
The mechanical drive mechanism is shown in figure 4-16. In this type of pump, the pistons and block do not rotate. Piston motion is caused by rotating the drive cam displacing each piston the full height of the drive cam during each revolution of the shaft. The ends of the pistons are attached to a wobble plate supported by a freed center pivot and are held inconstant contact with the cam face. As the high side of the rotating drive cam depresses one side of the wobble plate, the other side of the wobble plate is withdrawn an equal amount, moving the pistons with it. The two creep plates are provided to decrease wear on the revolving cam.
A schematic diagram of the displacement of fluid is shown in figure 4-17. Fluid is displaced by axial motion of the pistons. As each piston advances in its respective cylinder block bore, pressure opens the check valve and a quantity of fluid is forced past it. Combined back pressure and check valve spring tension close the check valve when the piston advances to its foremost position. The low-pressure area occurring in the cylinder during the piston return causes fluid to flow from the reservoir into the cylinder.
The internal features of the variable displacement Stratopower pump are illustrated in figure 4-18. This pump operates similarly to the fixed-displacement Stratopower pump; however, this pump provides the additional function of automatically varying the volume output.
This function is controlled by the pressure in the hydraulic system. For example, let us take a pump rated at 3000 psi, and providing flow to a 3000 psi system. As system pressure approaches, say 2850 psi, the pump begins to unload (deliver less flow to the system) and is fully unloaded (zero flow) at 3000 psi.
The pressure regulation and flow are controlled by internal bypasses that automatically djust fluid delivery to system demands.
The bypass system is provided to supply self-lubrication, particularly when the pump is in nonflow operation. The ring of bypass holes in the pistons are aligned with the bypass passage each time a piston reaches the very end of its forward travel. This pumps a small quantity of fluid out of the bypass passage back to the supply reservoir and provides a constant changing of fluid in the pump. The bypass is designed to pump against a considerable back pressure for use with pressurized reservoirs.
The term reciprocating is defined as back-and forth motion. In the reciprocating pump it is this back-and-forth motion of pistons inside of cylinders that provides the flow of fluid. Reciprocating pumps, like rotary pumps, operate on the positive principle—that is, each stroke delivers a definite volume of liquid to the system.
The master cylinder of the automobile brake system, is an example of a simple reciprocating pump. Several types of power-operated hydraulic pumps, such as the radial piston and axial piston, are also classified as reciprocating pumps. These pumps are sometimes classified as rotary pumps, because a rotary motion is imparted to the pumps by the source of power. However, the actual pumping is performed by sets of pistons reciprocating inside sets of cylinders.
Screw pumps for power transmission systems are generally used only on submarines. Although low in efficiency and expensive, the screw pump is suitable for high pressures (3000 psi), and delivers fluid with little noise or pressure pulsation.
Screw pumps are available in several different designs; however, they all operate in a similar manner. In a fixed-displacement rotary-type screw pump (fig. 4-8, view A), fluid is propelled axially in a constant, uniform flow through the action of just three moving parts-a power rotor and two idler rotors. The power rotor is the only driven element, extending outside the pump casing for power connections to an electrical motor. The idler rotors are turned by the power rotor through the action of the meshing threads. The fluid pumped between the meshing helical threads of the idler and power rotors provides a protective film to prevent metal-to-metal contact. The idler rotors perform no work; therefore, they do not need to be connected by gears to transmit power. The enclosures formed by the meshing of the rotors inside the close clearance housing contain the fluid being pumped. As the rotors turn, these enclosures move axially, providing a continuous flow. Effective performance is based on the following factors:
1. The rolling action obtained with the thread design of the rotors is responsible for the very quiet pump operation. The symmetrical pressure loading around the power rotor eliminates the need for radial bearings because there are no radial loads. The cartridge-type ball bearing in the pump positions the power rotor for proper seal operation. The axial loads on the rotors created by discharge pressure are hydraulically balanced.
2. The key to screw pump performance is the operation of the idler rotors in their housing bores. The idler rotors generate a hydrodynamic film to support themselves in their bores like journal bearings. Since this film is self-generated, it depends on three operating characteristics of the pump—speed, discharge pressure, and fluid
viscosity. The strength of the film is increased by increasing the operating speed, by decreasing pressure, or by increasing the fluid viscosity. This is why screw pump performance capabilities are based on pump speed, discharge pressure, and fluid viscosity.
The supply line is connected at the center of the pump housing in some pumps (fig. 4-8, view B). Fluid enters into the pump’s suction port, which opens into chambers at the ends of the screw assembly. As the screws turn, the fluid flows
between the threads at each end of the assembly. The threads carry the fluid along within the housing toward the center of the pump to the discharge port.
The lobe operation as pump uses the same principle of the external gear pump described previously. The lobes are considerably larger than gear teeth, but there are only two or three lobes on each rotor. A three-lobe pump is illustrated in figure 4-7. The two elements are rotated, one directly driven by the source of power, and the other through timing gears. As the elements rotate, liquid is trapped between two lobes of each rotor and the walls of the pump chamber and arried around from the suction side to the discharge side of the pump. As liquid leaves the suction chamber, the pressure in the suction chamber is lowered, and additional liquid is forced into the chamber from the reservoir.
The lobes are constructed so there is a continuous seal at the points where they meet at the center of the pump. The lobes of the pump illustrated in figure 4-7 are fitted with small vanes at the outer edge to improve the seal of the pump.
Although these vanes are mechanically held in their slots, they are, to some extent, free to move outward. Centrifugal force keeps the vanes snug against the chamber and the other rotating members.
Another design of internal gear pump is illustrated in figures 4-5 and 4-6. This pump consists of a pair of gear-shaped elements, one within the other, located in the pump chamber. The inner gear is connected to the drive shaft of the power source.
The operation of this type of internal gear pump is illustrated in figure 4-6. To simplify the explanation, the teeth of the inner gear and the spaces between the teeth of the outer gear are numbered. Note that the inner gear has one less tooth than the outer gear. The tooth form of each gear is related to that of the other in such a way that each tooth of the inner gear is always in sliding contact with the surface of the outer gear. Each tooth of the inner gear meshes with the outer
gear at just one point during each revolution. In the illustration, this point is at the X. In view A, tooth 1 of the inner gear is meshed with space 1 of the outer gear. As the gears continue to rotate in a clockwise direction and the teeth approach point X, tooth 6 of the inner gear will mesh with space 7 of the outer gear, tooth 5 with space 6, and so on. During this revolution, tooth 1 will mesh with space 2; and during the following revolution, tooth 1 will mesh with space 3. As a result, the outer gear will rotate at just six-sevenths the speed of the inner gear.
At one side of the point of mesh, pockets of increasing size are formed as the gears rotate, while on the other side the pockets decrease in size. In figure 4-6, the pockets on the right-hand side of the drawings are increasing in size toward the bottom of the illustration, while those on the left-hand side are decreasing in size toward the top of the illustration. The intake side of the pump would therefore be on the right and the discharge side on the left. In figure 4-5, since the right-hand side of the drawing was turned over to show the ports, the intake and discharge appear reversed. Actually, A in one drawing covers A in the other.
This pump is illustrated in figure 4-2, view B. The drive gear is attached directly to the drive shaft of the pump and is placed off-center in relation to the internal gear. The two gears mesh on one side of the pump, between the suction (inlet) and discharge ports. On the opposite side of the chamber, a crescent-shaped form fitted to a close tolerance fills the space between the two gears.
The rotation of the center gear by the drive shaft causes the outside gear to rotate, since the two are meshed. Everything in the chamber rotates except the crescent. This causes liquid to be trapped in the gear spaces as they pass the crescent. The liquid is carried from the suction port to the discharge port where it is forced out of the pump by the meshing of the gears. The size of the crescent that separates the internal and external gears determines the volume delivery of the pump. A small crescent allows more volume of liquid per revolution than a larger crescent.
The helical gear pump (fig. 4-4) is still another modification of the spur gear pump. Because of the helical gear design, the overlapping of successive discharges from spaces between the teeth is even greater than it is in the herringbone gear pump; therefore, the discharge flow is smoother. Since the discharge flow is smooth in the helical pump, the gears can be designed with a small number of large teeth—thus allowing increased capacity without sacrificing smoothness of flow.
The pumping gears of this type of pump are driven by a set of timing and driving gears that help maintain the required close clearances without actual metallic contact of the pumping gears. (Metallic contact between the teeth of the pumping gears would provide a tighter seal against slippage; however, it would cause rapid wear of the teeth, because foreign matter in the liquid would be present on the contact surfaces.)
Roller bearings at both ends of the gear shafts maintain proper alignment and minimize the friction loss in the transmission of power. Suitable packings are used to prevent leakage around the shaft.
The herringbone gear pump (fig. 4-3) is a modification of the spur gear pump. The liquid is pumped in the same manner as in the spur gear pump. However, in the herringbone pump, each set of teeth begins its fluid discharge phase before
the previous set of teeth has completed its discharge phase. This overlapping and the relatively larger space at the center of the gears tend to minimize pulsations and give a steadier flow than the spur gear pump.
The spur gear pump (fig. 4-1) consists of two meshed gears which revolve in a housing. The drive gear in the illustration is turned by a drive shaft which is attached to the power source. The clearances between the gear teeth as they mesh and between the teeth and the pump housing are very small.
The inlet port is connected to the fluid supply line, and the outlet port is connected to the pressure line. In figure 4-1 the drive gear is turning in a counterclockwise direction, and the driven (idle) gear is turning in a clockwise direction. As the teeth pass the inlet port, liquid is trapped between the teeth and the housing. This liquid is carried around the housing to the outlet port. As the teeth mesh again, the liquid between the teeth is pushed into the outlet port. This action produces a positive flow of liquid into the system. A shearpin or shear section is incorporated in the drive shaft. This is to protect the power source or reduction gears if the pump fails because of excessive load or jamming of parts.