Figure 6-21 shows the lift portion of the hydraulic system. The circuit has two cylinders: a single-acting lift cylinder and a double-acting tilt cylinder. The lift cylinder moves the lifting fork up and down. The tilt cylinder tilts the mast back and forth to support or dump the load.
A two-section, multiple-unit directional valve controls the cylinder’s operation. The first valve has a double-acting D-spool to operate the tilt cylinder, hydraulically, in either direction. The outer envelopes show the typical four flow paths for reversing the cylinder. The second valve has a single-acting T-spool to operate the lift cylinder. This cylinder is returned by gravity; the bypass unloads the pump.
The pump is driven by the lift truck’s engine and supplies the circuit from the large volume end. The enclosure around the two pump symbols indicates that both pumping units are contained in a single assembly. The same applies to the two directional valves and the relief valve that are enclosed. They are in a single assembly.
Figure 6-21 shows the circuit in neutral; the valves are centered. If the figure were to show the operating mode, the outer envelopes on the valve symbols would be shifted over to align with the ports at the center envelopes. The arrows in the envelopes would then show the flow paths from the pressure inlet to the cylinders and/or the return flow to tank.
Figure 6-25, diagrams A and B respectively, shows a road-patrol truck’s hydraulic system and a hydraulic circuit’s schematic, as a comparison. The truck needs three double-acting cylinders to operate its blades and dump body: a plow hoist cylinder for the front plow, an underblade cylinder, and a dump-body hoist cylinder. The truck also has a power-steering system operated from one-half of the double pump. (The steering system has been omitted from diagram B). The schematic shows that the three cylinders are operated through a three-spool, mobile directional valve fed from the large volume end of the double pump.
Hydraulic power steering incorporates a hydraulic boost into a basic manual-steering system. A basic manual-steering system is an arrangement of gears in a box that multiplies the input torque from the steering wheel to a much greater torque at the steering shaft (Figure 6-22). The steering shaft, through the pitman arm (or steering-shaft arm), transmits this increased torque through the steering linkage to the steering arms that turn the wheels. The basic system of manual-steering gears and steering linkage is a steering wheel, steering gear, and linkage to the steered wheel.
The hydraulic boost, which is a mechanically operated hydraulic servo, may be applied to the steering linkage (Figure 6-23) or within the steering gear. Steering-wheel movement actuates the steering valve, which directs the fluid under pressure to the steering-valve body that follows the valve spool. Hydraulic boost is applied only when the steering wheel is being moved.
An integral power-steering system has the hydraulic-boost subsystem built into the mechanical steering gear. The steering valve is actuated by moving the steering shaft. The valve controls the operation of the power cylinder.
Thrust from the power cylinder is transmitted directly to the steering shaft. Road shock transmitted back from the wheels is taken up in the steering gear.
Figure 6-24, shows the semi integral power-steering system, or valve-on gear system. The steering valve is built into the steering gear. The power cylinder is attached to the vehicle’s frame and to the linkage. Road shock and thrust are absorbed in the frame.