In this system, a pump can rest when the oil is not required to operate a function. This means that a control valve is closed in the center, stopping the flow of the oil from the pump. Figure 2-7, shows a closed-center system. To operate several functions simultaneously, a closed-center system have the following connections:
Fixed-Displacement Pump and Accumulator. Figure 2-8, shows a closed center system. In this system, a pump of small but constant volume charges an accumulator. When an accumulator is charged to full pressure, an unloading valve diverts the pump flow back to a reservoir. A check valve traps the pressured oil in the circuit.
When a control valve is operated, an accumulator discharges its oil and actuates a cylinder. As pressure begins to drop, an unloading valve directs the pump flow to an accumulator to recharge the flow. This system, using a small capacity pump, is effective when operating oil is needed only for a short time. However, when the functions need a lot of oil for longer periods, an accumulator system cannot handle it unless the accumulator is very large.
Variable-Displacement Pump. Figure 2-9, shows a closed-center system with a variable-displacement pump in the neutral mode. When in neutral, oil is pumped until the pressure rises to a predetermined level. A pressure regulating valve allows the pump to shut off by itself and maintain this pressure to the valve. When the control valve is operating, oil is diverted from the pump to the bottom of a cylinder. The drop in pressure caused by connecting the pump’s pressure line to the bottom of the cylinder causes the pump to go back to work, pumping oil to the bottom of the piston and raising the load.
When the valve moves, the top of the piston connects to a return line, which allows the return oil that was forced from the piston to return to the reservoir or pump. When the valve returns to neutral, oil is trapped on both sides of the cylinder, and the pressure passage from the pump is dead-ended. After this sequence, the pump rests. Moving the spool in the downward position directs oil to the top of the piston, moving the load downward. The oil from the bottom of the piston is sent into the return line.
Figure 2-10, shows this closed-center system with a charging pump, which pumps oil from the reservoir to the variable-displacement pump. The charging pump supplies only the makeup oil required in a system and provides some inlet pressure to make a variable displacement pump more efficient. The return oil from a system’s functions is sent directly to the inlet of a variable-displacement pump.
Because today’s machines need more hydraulic power, a closed-center system is more advantageous. For example, on a tractor, oil may be required for power steering, power brakes, remote cylinders, three-point hitches, loaders, and other mounted equipment. In most cases, each function requires a different quantity of oil. With a closed-center system, the quantity of oil to each function can be controlled by line or valve size or by orificing with less heat build up when compared to the flow dividers necessary in a comparable open-center system. Other advantages of a closed-center system are as follows:
• It does not require relief valves because the pump simply shuts off by itself when standby pressure is reached. The prevents heat buildup in systems where relief pressure is frequently reached.
• The size of the lines, valves, and cylinders can be tailored to the flow requirements of each function.
• Reserve flow is available, by using a larger pump, to ensure full hydraulic speed at low engine revolutions per minute (rpm). More functions can be served.
• It is more efficient on functions such as brakes, which require force but very little piston movement. By holding the valve open, standby pressure is constantly applied to the brake piston with no efficiency loss because the pump has returned to standby.