Check valves are the most commonly used in fluid-powered systems. They allow flow in one direction and prevent flow in the other direction. They may be installed independently in a line, or they may be incorporated as an integral part of a sequence, counterbalance, or pressure-reducing valve. The valve element may be a sleeve, cone, ball, poppet, piston, spool, or disc. Force of the moving fluid opens a check valve; back flow, a spring, or gravity closes the valve. Figures 5-14, 5-15 and 5-16 show various types of check valves.
(1) Standard Type (Figure 5-17). This valve may be a right-angle or an inline type, depending on the relative location of the ports. Both types operate on the same principle. The valve consists essentially of a poppet or ball 1 held on a seat by the force of spring 2. Flow directed to the inlet port acts against spring 2 to unseat poppet 1 and open the valve for through flow (see Figure 5-17, diagram B, for both valve types). Flow entering the valve through the outlet port combines with spring action to hold poppet 1 on its seat to check reverse flow.
These valves are available with various cracking pressures. Conventional applications usually use the light spring because it ensures reseating the poppet regardless of the valve’s mounting position. Heavy spring units are generally used to ensure the availability of at least the minimum pressure required for pilot operations.
(2) Restriction Type (Figure 5-18). This valve has orifice plug 1 in the nose of poppet 2, which makes it different from a conventional, right-angle check valve. Flow directed to the inlet port opens the valve, allowing free flow through the valve. Reverse flow directed in through the outlet port seats poppet 2. Flow is restricted to the amount of oil, which can be altered, to allow a suitable bleed when the poppet is closed. Uses of a restriction check valve can be to control the lowering speed of a down-moving piston and the rate of decompression in large presses.
(3) Pilot-Operated Type (Figure 5-19). In diagram A, the valve has poppet 1 seated on stationary sleeve 2 by spring 3. This valve opens the same as a conventional check valve. Pressure at the inlet ports must be sufficient to overcome the combined forces of any pressure at the outlet port and the light thrust of spring 3 so that poppet 1 raises and allows flow from the inlet ports through the outlet port. In this situation, there is no pressure required at the pilot port.
In diagram B, the valve is closed to prevent reverse flow. Pressure at the outlet port and the thrust of spring 3 hold poppet 1 on its seat to block the flow. In this case, the pilot port has no pressure.
In diagram C, pressure applied at the pilot port is sufficient to overcome the thrust of spring 3. The net forces exerted by pressures at the other ports raise piston 4 to unseat poppet 1 and allow controlled flow from the outlet to the inlet ports. With no pressure at the inlet ports, pilot pressure must exceed 40 percent of that imposed at outlet to open the poppet.
Figure 5-20 shows another pilot-operated check valve. This valve consists of poppet 1 secured to piston 3. Poppet 1 is held against seat 4 by the action of spring 2 on piston 3. In diagram A, the valve is in the free-flow position. Pressure at the inlet port, acting downward against poppet 1, is sufficient to overcome the combined forces of spring 2 against piston 3 and the pressure, if any, at the outlet port. (The pressure at the outlet port is exerted over a greater effective area than that at the inlet because of the poppet stem.) The drain post is open to the tank, and there is no pressure at the pilot port. Diagram B shows the valve in a position to prevent reverse flow, with no pressure at the pilot port and the drain opening to the tank.
Diagram C shows the pilot operation of the valve. When sufficient pressure is applied at the pilot port to overcome the thrust of spring 2 plus the net effect of pressure at the other ports, poppet 1 is unseated to allow reverse flow. Pilot pressure must be equal to about 80 percent of that imposed at the outlet port to open the valve and allow reverse flow.