Globe valves are probably the most common valves in existence. The globe valve gets its name from the globular shape of the valve body. Other types of valves may also have globular-shaped bodies. Thus, it is the internal structure of the valve that identifies the type of valve.
The inlet and outlet openings for globe valves are arranged in a way to satisfy the flow requirements. Figure 6-6 shows straight-, angle-,and cross-flow valves.
The moving parts of a globe valve consist of the disk, the valve stem, and the hand wheel. The stem connects the hand wheel and the disk. It is threaded and fits into the threads in the valve bonnet.
The part of the globe valve that controls flow is the disk, which is attached to the valve stem. (Disks are available in various designs.) The valve is closed by turning the valve stem in until the disk is seated into the valve seat. This prevents fluid from flowing through the valve (fig. 6-7, view A). The edge of the disk and the seat are very accurately machined so that they forma tight seal when the valve is closed. When the valve is open (fig. 6-7, view B), the fluid flows through the space between the edge of the disk and the seat. Since the fluid flows equally on all sides of the center of support when the valve is open, there is no unbalanced pressure on the disk to cause uneven wear. The rate at which fluid flows through the valve is regulated by the position of the disk in relation to the seat. The valve is commonly used as a fully open or fully closed valve, but it may be used as a throttle valve. However, since the seating surface is a relatively large area, it is not suitable as a throttle valve, where fine adjustments are required in controlling the rate of flow.
The globe valve should never be jammed in the open position. After a valve is fully opened, the handwheel should be turned toward the closed position approximately one-half turn. Unless this is done, the valve is likely to seize in the open position, making it difficult, if not impossible, to close the valve. Many valves are damaged in this manner. Another reason for not leaving globe valves in the fully open position is that it is sometimes difficult to determine if the valve is open or closed. If the valve is jammed in the open position, the stem may be damaged or broken by someone who thinks the valve is closed, and attempts to open it.
It is important that globe valves be installed with the pressure against the face of the disk to keep the system pressure away from the stem packing when the valve is shut.