An O-ring is doughnut-shaped. O-rings are usually molded from rubber compounds; however, they can be molded or machined from plastic materials. The O-ring is usually fitted into a rectangular groove (usually called a gland) machined into the mechanism to be sealed. An O-ring seal consists of an O-ring mounted in the gland so that the O-ring’s cross section is compressed (squeezed) when the gland is assembled (fig. 7-6).
An O-ring sealing system is often one of the first sealing systems considered when a fluid closure is designed because of the following advantages of such a system:
3. Low cost
4. Ease of installation
5. Ease of maintenance
6. No adjustment required
7. No critical torque in clamping
8. Low distortion of structure
9. Small space requirement
11. Effectiveness over wide pressure and temperature ranges
As stated previously, O-rings are used in both static (as gaskets) and dynamic (as packing) applications. An O-ring will almost always be the most satisfactory choice of seals in static applications if the fluids, temperatures, pressure, and geometry permit.
Standard O-ring packings are not specifically designed to be used as rotary seals. When infrequent rotary motion or low peripheral velocity is involved standard O-ring packings may be used, provided consistent surface finishes over
the entire gland are used and eccentricities are accurately controlled. O-rings cannot compensate for out-of-round or eccentrically rotating shafts.
As rotary seals, O-rings perform satisfactorily in two application areas:
1. In low-speed applications where the surface speed of the shaft does not exceed 200 ft/min
2. In high-speed moderate-pressure applications, between 50 and 800 psi
The use of low-friction extrusion-resistant devices is helpful in prolonging the life and improving the performance of O-rings used as rotary seals.
O-rings are often used as reciprocating seals in hydraulic and pneumatic systems. While best suited for short-stroke, relatively small diameter applications, O-rings have been used successfully in long-stroke, large diameter applications.
Glands for O-rings used as reciprocating seals are usually designed according to MIL-G-5514 to provide a squeeze that varies from 8 to 10 percent minimum and 13.5 to 16 percent maximum. A squeeze of 20 percent is allowed on O-rings with a cross section of 0.070-inch or less. In some reciprocating pneumatic applications, a floating O-ring design may simultaneously reduce friction and wear by maintaining no squeeze by the gland on the O-ring. When air pressure enters the cylinder, the air pressure flattens the O-ring, causing sufficient squeeze to seal during the stroke. If the return stroke does not use pneumatic power, the O-ring returns to its round cross section, minimizing drag and wear on the return stroke.